Download 3-D seismic imaging by Biondi B.L. PDF

By Biondi B.L.

Seismic pictures are an important to modern exploration and reservoir tracking. '3D Seismic Imaging offers basic innovations and state-of-the-art tools for imaging mirrored image seismic facts. The ebook coherently provides the most parts of seismic imaging - data-acquisition geometry, migration, and speed estimation - by means of exposing the hyperlinks that intertwine them. The booklet emphasizes graphical realizing over theoretical improvement. a number of man made and box information examples illustrate the presentation of mathematical algorithms. the amount contains a DVD that includes a subset (C3-narrow-azimuth vintage facts set) of the SEG-EAGE salt info set and of the corresponding pace version. The DVD additionally features a whole set of PDF slides that may be used to coach the fabric offered within the booklet.

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When the velocity function is so complex as to cause non-hyperbolic moveouts across offsets, the simple hyperbolic NMO equation is obviously inappropriate to correct for the time delays of prestack traces. We will examine the issues related to non-hyperbolic moveouts in a later chapter. The most common failure of the NMO+Stack procedure is in the presence of dipping reflectors. To analyze the approximations that are implicitly made when the data are imaged by NMO+Stack followed by zero-offset migration, we evaluate analytically the summation (and spreading) surface of the prestack imaging operator that is equivalent to the application of NMO+Stack followed by zero-offset migration.

Spatial aliasing) of the data. Methods exist to prevent the final image from being adversely affected by artifacts caused by poor spatial sampling, as we will discuss in Chapter 8 and Chapter 9. 21) substantially larger. 2 Poststack imaging of SEG-EAGE salt data set To illustrate the capabilities and limitations of poststack imaging, we analyze the results obtained by processing a subset of the SEG-EAGE salt data set. We focus on the area around the crest of the salt body. 6. shows an in-line section of the interval velocity function in this area.

The larger the dip component along the in-line direction, the larger the error is. 1 Stacking velocity from dipping reflectors The errors introduced by the NMO+Stack procedure can also be analyzed, and partially corrected, by making the stacking velocity a function of the reflectors’ dip. Consistent with the results of the previous section, the necessary correction to the NMO velocity is greatest when the trace azimuth is aligned with the structural dip direction, and is null when the trace azimuth is aligned with the structural strike direction.

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