By Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.
This publication introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of reading 3-D seismic facts. the subjects it covers comprise simple structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by way of expert geophysicists with a long time of operating event within the oil undefined, the booklet could be quintessential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum
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36 Example of seismic data before and after migration. Data on the left are unmigrated, on the right they are migrated. Notice how the migration process has reduced the apparent size of the structure. Note also that whereas the picture on the left has reflections that cross each other, those on the right are geologically consistent. 6 Post-migration processing After migration the data are more correctly positioned although they may still not be perfectly located owing to errors in the velocity field, use of time migration rather than depth migration, anisotropy, etc.
Currents, it may be difficult for the boat to travel in or against the direction of the current and maintain good control over the cables and the required shot point spacing, leaving little choice on shooting direction. Modern seismic boats are designed to tow large numbers and lengths of receiver cables through the water while remaining acoustically quiet so as to avoid unwanted noise on the recorded data. Special expansion joints are used in the cables to ensure that the cables themselves do not transmit noise along their length.
The source used is generally a standard marine source, although occasionally with some tuning of the gun array to give a signature that is more uniform over a larger range of angles than the more directional source used in standard 3-D seismic surveys. Both acquisition costs and processing time are greater for converted wave data, so it is seldom used in areas with a good P-wave image. Indeed, the amplitude versus offset information in conventional P-wave data contains information on the shear wave contrasts (see chapter 5).