By Marcel Nelson
Delivering a serious account of the cave in of the FTAA negotiations and adjustments to energy kinfolk within the Americas, this ebook argues that the cave in was once rooted in a "crisis of authority" caused via growing to be competition within the Americas to US management and the neo-liberal reforms that were promoted by way of Washington because the Nineteen Eighties.
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Additional info for A History of the FTAA: From Hegemony to Fragmentation in the Americas
In what follows, Cox’s central concepts will be reviewed in order to get a clearer picture of this analytical problem. Hegemony and World Order Cox’s theoretical innovation vis-à-vis Gramsci was his emphasis on the role of international organizations in spreading hegemony. He explains that such institutions are founded by a hegemonic state, or at least have the support of one, and work to incorporate other states 30 A History of the FTAA into the hegemonic order depending on their position in the hierarchy of the global capitalist order.
In relation to the FTAA negotiations, this means that the governance structure established to negotiate the agreement remained relationally shaped by developments in the civil societies of the hemisphere. Therefore, this chapter will outline how institutions located beyond the national state are shaped by multiple crystallizations in relation to national state structures of social relations as part of hegemonic and counterhegemonic projects. This chapter will also demonstrate that the creation of new institutions and the reshaping of existing ones at multiple scales are not Gramsci, Hegemony, and Global Governance 29 merely matters of material institutionality; rather, there is an important ethical-political dimension to these dynamics as a result of their being entwined in the dialectical relationship between civil society and political society.
The chapter will make the case that these reforms had much more radical and immediate consequences in Venezuela than in the rest of Latin America due to the specificities of its historical bloc; notably, it set the ground for the eventual election of Chavez and the inauguration of the Fifth Republic. The chapter will also trace how petroleum revenue gave the Chavez government the flexibility to criticize the United States and the resources to challenge opposition elements within the Venezuelan state.