By Dr. Gerard J. Steen, Aletta G. Dorst, J. Berenike Herrmann, Anna A. Kaal, Tina Krennmayr, Trijntje Pasma
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Additional info for A Method for Linguistic Metaphor Identification: From MIP to MIPVU (Converging Evidence in Language and Communication Research)
If it were to include the latter, it would have to systematically do so for all noun-verb pairs and other word formation products, and not just the few striking ones such as dog/to dog. This could in effect be done by an analysis of this type of dictionary entry as such, and could simply compare all lemmas that exhibit more than one word class in order to check whether one of them might be related to the other one by metaphor. This type of research would have no need to look at words as they are being used in discourse contexts, but would simply be able to assign the label ‘metaphorical’ to all uses of for instance the lemma ‘dog’ used as a verb, depending on the relation of the lemma in one word class to another, more basic use of that lemma in the other word class.
It is not surprising that a large body of research on metaphor in news discourse is available. g. Chiang & Duann 2007; Kitis & Milapides 1997; Musolff 2006; Zinken 2003). g. g. g. Charteris-Black 2004), to name just a few. None of these metaphor studies on news texts focuses on the identification of metaphors themselves. However, soundly and reliably identified linguistic metaphors can legitimize and enhance any ensuing analysis, whether empirical or interpretative. We present how applying the protocol of MIPVU introduced in the previous chapter allows for precise measurement of metaphor in news discourse – a prerequisite for evaluating the quality of an analysis.
The solution to annotation problems proposed below is maximally simple: every separate word will be treated as a separate lexical unit, except for the underlined cases. a. Proper names: all parts of genuine proper names are to be treated in the way of regular POS tagging. That is, Roy Wood and Madame Mattli are coded as two separate words and taken as two lexical units. This can be extended to addresses, with house numbers as well as road names all being cut up into separate lexical units. As a result, New York (in New York Herald Tribune) is also two units.