By Peter Gatrell
"... a sign contribution to a becoming literature on a phenomenon that has turn into tragically pervasive within the twentieth century.... This hugely unique account combines exemplary empirical examine with the really appropriate program of different how to discover the far-reaching ramifications of 'a entire empire walking.'" -- Vucinich Prize citation"An very important contribution not just to trendy Russian heritage but in addition to an ongoing repositioning of Russia in broader eu and international old processes.... elegantly written... hugely innovative." -- Europe-Asia reports Drawing on formerly unused archival fabric in Russia, Latvia, and Armenia and on insights from social and significant conception, Peter Gatrell considers the origins of displacement and its political implications and offers a detailed research of humanitarian projects and the relationships among refugees and the groups within which they settled.
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Extra resources for A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies)
54 The tsarist lexicon had hastily been extended, with conceptual and administrative dif¤culties that had yet to impinge fully on of¤cial consciousness. In the modern era, a distinction is often drawn between approaches that, on the one hand, treat refugees as victims of emergencies requiring an urgent humanitarian response and, on the other, deal with refugees as a foreign policy or security issue. Recent discussions have also focused on the human rights dimensions of involuntary population displacement.
G. Zamyslovskii, who maintained that those who stayed behind were likely to be conscripted by the enemy to dig trenches, repair railway track, and supply foodstuffs. Whether willingly or not, these civilians would certainly be helping the German and Austrian war effort. Not for him the possibility of partisan bands! 114 In phrases that were to be repeated many times, refugees were described as a 28 A Whole Empire Walking “human wave” and as a “hungry and angry ®ock of locusts” that passed through the Russian interior, devouring everything in their path.
Jews suffered most acutely. ”15 At all levels in the chain of command, there was a widespread willingness to single out Jews for immediate deportation. German colonists in the southwest (“although they are Russian subjects, they are not Orthodox”) also found themselves the target of military wrath. 16 War and the Origins of Involuntary Displacement 17 In this manner the ®ow of refugees and other displaced persons from Russia’s imperial borderlands assumed unprecedented and unexpected dimensions, contributing to public perceptions of the war as a national catastrophe.